Volume Three Number Two

Editorial

Amy Butterfield, ‘A Shoulder to Cry On: The Consumption of Royalist Literature as a Mourning Ritual in Seventeenth Century England.’
Honours, University of Sydney
In January 1649, Charles I was beheaded, beginning a process of transformation of the monarch from tyrant to martyr. In this article, Amy Butterfield explores this moment in English history through the lens of Royalist literature, focusing specifically on the ways by which such texts reconstructed the image of Charles I. This article places Royalist literature within the context of alternate forms of propaganda, as well as the processes of grief and mourning rituals in the aftermath of Charles I’s execution, to better understand the ways by which Parliamentary attempts to overthrow the monarchy were prevented. The restoration of the monarchy by 1660 was achieved, Butterfield argues, not through cavalry charges or musket fire but – importantly – through words.

Ryan Coates, ‘In Defence of the Court’s Integrity: The Role of Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes in the Defeat of the Court-Packing Plan of 1937.’
Honours, Durham University
In 1937, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill – a legislative initiative designed to allow the President to add additional members to the US Supreme Court. Ryan Coates’ article explores this watershed moment (known as the ‘Court-Packing Plan’) in American legal history through the career and role of Charles Evans Hughes, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1930. Coates uses the intervention of Chief Justice Hughes as a focal point through which to re-examine existing histories of both the Court-Packing Plan and the man himself, and argues that Hughes’ attempt to preserve the institutional integrity of the Supreme Court is worthy of more thorough historical appreciation.

Catherine Horne, ‘Devoted to Sport: Health, Fitness and the American New Girl, 1890-1902.’
Honours, University of Sydney
Throughout the nineteenth century, the health and wellbeing of the middle-class girl became an increasing concern in popular literature and culture. In this article, Catherine Horne traces the rise of the American ‘New Girl’ – a conceptualisation of girlhood interwoven with ideas of physical fitness. The New Girl, Horne argues, was a cultural symbol rather than a lived reality, and rose to prominence within an historical context characterised by its focus on physical health. This article seeks to shed light on this cultural construction, and in doing so raises important questions about the idea of femininity in nineteenth and early twentieth century America.

Matthew Lesh, ‘Mexican Americans and World War II: Change and Continuity.’
Third Year Undergraduate, University of Melbourne
The experiences of Mexican Americans during World War II, both in combat roles and on the home-front, is an under-examined aspect of that country’s history. Using an archive of oral history interviews recently undertaken with Mexican American war veterans, Matthew Lesh explores the complex series of lived experiences of this group before, during, and immediately after World War II. The participation of Mexican Americans in the war effort, Lesh argues, instigated the process of eradicating some of the discriminatory practices present in American society in the mid-twentieth century, and gave Mexican Americans an increasingly important voice in their nation’s culture.

Marian Jean Lorrison, ‘Much to mourn or much to celebrate? Historical reckoning and the legacy of Federation.’
Masters, University of New England
In 2001, Australia celebrated its Centenary of Federation, an event marked by significant historical and historiographical re-examinations about the nation and its history. In this article, Marian Jean Lorrison traces these scholarly works, arguing that the debates around the commemoration of Federation highlighted a broader unease about Australia’s history of British colonisation. Lorrison examines the ongoing absence of Federation in the national psyche, its marked lack of emotional resonance for most contemporary Australians, and questions around the presence (or absence) of Indigenous Australians and women from Australia’s historically-focused national identity. This article convincingly suggests that when history is in the headlines, as it was in 2001, it enriches our historiography and our sense of national self.

Thomas Ashley Mackay, ‘Advertising Advertising: The Emerging Advertising Industry’s Dual Promotional Campaigns, 1890-1920.’
Honours, University of Adelaide
The popularity of television show Mad Men has seen a recent academic preoccupation with the history of advertising. In this article, Thomas Mackay examines advertising from the end of the nineteenth and into the early twentieth centuries, tracing the ascent of the industry in the context of the Progressive Era. This early industry, Mackay argues, was characterised by a dual purpose – to represent itself to the public as a conscientious institution, while simultaneously proving itself to potential clients as capable of cultivating ‘prejudice’ towards consumables. The result of this negotiation, Mackay suggests, was the need for the industry to effectively sell itself – to advertise advertising.

Kate Narev, ‘The Nature and Importance of Sumerian City States.’
Masters, University of New England
In examinations of Ancient Mesopotamia, it is the cities of Uruk and Ur – arguably the world’s first city-states – which have most fervently captured the attention of historians. However, much of this historiography is one-dimensional, and Kate Narev’s article is an attempt to more critically engage with the evidence and narratives of Sumerian city-states. In this article, Narev examines the key features of the Sumerian city-state, focusing on the structures, institutions, writing, and art of these multi-faceted civilisations. Of particular import is the rise of specialisation these city structures afforded, marking an indelible shift in the ways by which human societies functioned. The Sumerian civilisation, Narev argues, provided a cultural cohesion throughout Mesopotamia, and set the groundwork for future cities.

Donna Selby, ‘Brides of Christ: Faith and Action in Reformation Europe.’
Second Year Undergraduate, Macquarie University
The sixteenth century Protestant and Catholic Reformations dramatically altered the experience and practice of institutional Christianity. Donna Selby’s article explores this watershed moment in religious practice through the lens of the female experience of the Reformations; specifically, the changing roles of women (especially nuns) within the Church. Addressing an under-examined area of religious historiography, this article details the complex and nuanced responses to the Reformations by Protestant and Catholic nuns, with a particular focus on those who left their religious orders. Drawing on a rich archive of primary source material, Selby argues that the experiences of female monasticism in the early modern period is in need of much more sustained academic attention.

Alanna Speer, ‘How Did Christianity Become the Dominant Religion of the Later Roman Empire?’
Honours, University of New South Wales
The rise of Christianity as a dominant religion has characterised much of the history of the Western world. In this article, Alanna Speer examines the ways by which Christianity rose to prominence – and, indeed, dominance – in the Later Roman Empire (250AD to 450AD). Employing both historiographical analysis and primary source research, Speer details the role of Constantine I in solidifying the presence of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, and traces the evolution of Christianity from a small, persecuted religious sect to the official state religion of the Empire. This turbulent rise, Speer argues, is a far more complex series of narratives than those currently shown in studies of Christianity and in Roman studies.

 

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